The Exergy Optimization of a Flat-Plate Solar Collector Using AL2O3-Water, CuO-Water and TiO2-Water Nanofluids by Genetic Algorithm

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Islamic Azad University student

2 Faculty Member of Islamic Azad University

Abstract

In this study, the exergy efficiency of a flat plate solar collector using Al2O3, TiO2, CuO nanoparticles and pure water as base fluid is studied. Solar radiation is selected between 200 to 600 W/m2. The method to determine optimum values of optimization variables has been developed by Genetic Algorithm Toolbox in MATLAB software. Results show by increasing solar radiation the optimized exergy efficiency is increased 3.72% for Al2O3 and TiO2nanofluids and 3.6% for CuO nanofluid. According to optimum values of mass flow rate of fluid, 15.22% for Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluids and 4.35% for CuO nanofluid is decreased, also collector inlet temperature is decreased about 0.8% for all nanofluids. By increasing wind speed and ambient temperature for both cases, the exergy efficiency increased and decreased respectively. Using nanofluids decreased 0.4% overall loss coefficient of collector.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1]   Tyagi, H., Phelan, P., and Prasher, R., “Predicted Efficiency of a Low-temperature Nanofluid – based Direct Absorption Solar Collector”, J. Solar Energy Eng., Vol. 131, No. 4, pp. 410041-410047, (2009).

 

[2]   Colangelo, G., Favale, E., de Risi, A., and Laforgia, D., “Results of Experimental Investigations on the Heat Conductivity of Nanofluids Based on Diathermic Oil for High Temperature Applications”, Appl. Energy, Vol. 97, pp. 828–833, (2012).

 

[3]   Luminosu, I., and Fara, L., “Determination of the Optimal Operation Mode of a Flat Solar Collector by Exergetic Analysis and Numerical Simulation”, Energy, Vol. 30, No. 5, pp. 731–747, (2005).

 

[4]   Farahat, S., Sarhaddi, F., and Ajam, H., “Exergetic Optimization of Flat Plate Solar Collectors”, Renew. Energy, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 1169–1174, (2009).

 

[5]   Kalogirou, S.A., “Exergy Analysis and Genetic Algorithms for the Optimization of Flat Plate Solar Collectors”, the 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, Perugia, Italy, (2012).

 

[6]   Sagadevan, S., and Pandurangan, K., “Investigations Onstructural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Zinc Sulfidethin Films”, International Journal of Nano Dimension, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 433-438, (2015).

 

[7]   Faizal, M., Saidur, R., Mekhilef, S., and Alim, M. A., “Energy, Economic and Environmental Analysis of Metal Oxides Nanofluid for Flat-plate Solar Collector”, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 76, pp. 162–168, (2013).

 

[8]   Maxwell, J.C., “A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism”, 2rd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK, (1881).

 

[9]   Batchelor, G.K., “The Effect of Brownian Motion on the Bulk Stress in a Suspension of Spherical Particles”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 97–117, (1977).

 

[10]  Pak, B.C., and Cho, Y.I., “Hydrodynamic and Heat Transfer Study of Dispersed Fluids with Submicron Metallic Oxide Particles”, Exp. Heat Transfer, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 151–170, (1998).

 

[11]    Duffie, J.A., and Beckman, W.A., “Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes”, 3rd ed. New Jersey, Wiley, (2006).

 

[12]   Klein, S.A., “Calculation of Flat-plate Solar Collector Loss Coefficients”, Solar Energy, Vol. 17, pp. 79-80, (1975).

 

[13] Xuan, Y., and Li, Q., “Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Flow Features of Nanofluids”, J. Heat Transfer, Vol. 125, No. 1, pp. 151–155, (2003).

 

[14]  Badescu, V., “Optimal Control of Flow in Solar Collectors for Maximum Exergy Extraction”, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, Vol. 50, No. 21-22, pp. 4311-4322, (2007).

 

[15]  Suzuki, A., “General Theory of Exergy Balance Analysis and Application to Solar Collectors”, Energy, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 153–160, (1988).

 

[16]  Suzuki, A., “A Fundamental Equation for Exergy Balance on Solar Collectors”, J. Sol. Energy Eng., Vol. 110, No. 2, pp. 102–106, (1988).

 

[17]   Kotas, T.J., “The Exergy Method of Thermal Plant Analysis”, Malabar, FL: Krieger Publish Company, (1995).

 

[18]  Bejan, A., “Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics”, New York, Wiley, Interscience, pp. 462–465, (1988).

 

[19]  Torres-Reyes, E., Cervantes de Gortari, J.G., Ibarra-Salazar, B.A., and Picon-Nunez, M., “A Design Method of Flat-plate Solar Collectors Based on Minimum Entropy Generation”, Exergy, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 46–52, (2001).

 

[20] Najian, M.R., “Exergy Analysis of Flat Plate Solar Collector”, MS Thesis, Tehran, Iran: Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Tehran University, (2000).

 

[21]  Yousefi, T., Veysi, F., Shojaeizadeh, E., and Zinadini, S., “An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Al2O3–H2O Nanofluid on the Efficiency of Flat-plate Solar Collectors”, Renew. Energy, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 293–298, (2012).