Wheelchair stabilization by the control of a spatial 3-RRS mechanism
AbstractA spatial parallel mechanism namely 3-RRS mechanism has been assigned to be attached to the seat of a standard electric wheelchair to prevent the turning over of the handicapped sitting on the wheelchair. The system of the wheelchair and the mechanism is a self-balancing robotic wheelchair and has coped with several road conditions. A stability control system calculates the proper moments on the basis of the height of the mass centre and the angle of the wheelchair. The control parameters have obtained and the revolute motors have been actuated by the control torques. Based on the simulation results of the system in MatLab, two types of stabilized wheelchairs, one of which has shown good results on several road conditions, have been built and tested.
 Merlet, J.P., "Parallel Robots Solid Mechanics and Its Applications", Springer, Netherlands, (2010). Gosselin, C., "Kinematic Analysis Optimization and Programming of Parallel Robotic Manipulators", Ph.D. Thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada, June 15, (1988). Lee, K.M., and Shah, D.K., "Kinematic Analysis of a Three-degree-of-freedom In-parallel Actuated Manipulator", IEEE J. of Robotics and Automation, Vo1. 4, Issue. 3, pp. 354-360, (1988). Lee, K.M., and Shah, D.K., "Dynamic Analysis of a Three-degrees-of-freedom In-parallel Actuated Manipulator, IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vo1. 4, No. 3, pp. 361-367, (1988). Wang, J., and Gosselin, C.M., "Kinematic Analysis and Singularity Loci of Spatial Four-degree-of-freedom Parallel Manipulators using a Vector Formulation", Transaction ASME, Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 120, pp. 555-558, (1998). Wang, J., and Gosselin, C.M., "Kinematic Analysis and Singularity Representation of Spatial Five-degree-of-freedom Parallel Mechanisms", Int. J. of Robotic Systems, Vol. 14, pp. 851-869, (1997). Huang, Z., Tao, W.S., and Fang, Y.F., "Study on the Kinematic Characteristics of 3 DOF In-parallel Actuated Platform Mechanisms", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 31, No. 8, pp. 999-1007, (1996) Buruncuk, K., and Tokad, Y., "On the Kinematics of a 3-DOF Stewart Platform", International Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 105-118, (1999). Hertz R.B. and Hughes P.C., "Kinematic Analysis of a General Double-tripod Parallel Manipulator", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 683-696, (1998). Wang, J., and Gosselin, C.M., "Static Balancing of Spherical Three-degree-of-freedom Parallel Mechanism", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 437-452, (1999). Davliakos, I., and Papadopoulos, E., "Model-based Control of a 6-DOF Electrohydraulic Stewart-gough Platform", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 43, pp. 1385-1400, (2008). Buruncuk, K., and Tokad, Y., "On the Kinematics of a 3-DOF Stewart Platform", International Journal of Robotic System, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 105-118, (1999). Li, J., Wang, J., and Liu, X., "An Efficient Method for Inverse Dynamics of Kinematically Defective Parallel Platforms", Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 19, pp. 45-51, (2002). Paul, R.P., “Modelling, Trajectory Calculation and Servoing of a Computer Controlled Arm”, PhD Thesis in Comp. Sci., Stanford University, Stanford A. I. Memo AIM-177, Sept. (1972). John J. Craig, "Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control", Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, USA, (1989). Husty, M.L., "An Algorithm for Solving the Direct Kinematics of General Stewart-Gough Platforms", Mechanisms and Machine Theory, Vol. 31, No. 4, pp. 365-380, (1996). Asada, H., "Robot Analysis and Control", John Wiley & Sons, Canada, (1986). Liu, Sh., Qiu, Zh., and Zhang, X., "Singularity and Path-planning with the Working Mode Conversion of a 3-DOF 3-RRR Planar Parallel Manipulator", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 107, pp. 166–182, (2017). Quaglia, G., and Nisi, M., "Design of a Self-leveling Cam Mechanism for a Stair Climbing Wheelchair", Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 112, pp. 84–104, (2017). Mishra, S., Norton, J.J.S., Lee, Y., Lee, D.S., Agee, N., Chun, Y., Yeo, W.H., and Chen, Y., "Soft, Conformal Bioelectronics for a Wireless Human-wheelchair Interface", Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Vol. 91, pp. 796–803, (2017). Valenzuela, V.L., Lucena, and V.F. Jr., "Remote Monitoring and Control of an Electric Powered Wheelchair in an Assisted Living Environment", IFAC-papers Online, Vol. 49, No. 30, pp. 181–185, (2016). Boukens, M., Boukabou, A., and Chadli, M., "Robust Adaptive Neural Network-based Trajectory Tracking Control Approach for Nonholonomic Electrically Driven Mobile Robots", Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 92, pp. 30–40, (2017). Baklouti, E., Amor, N.B., and Jallouli, M., "Reactive Control Architecture for Mobile Robot Autonomous Navigation", Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 89, pp. 9–14, (2017). Narayanan, V.K., Pasteau, F., Marchal, M., Krupa, A., and Babel, M., "Vision-based Adaptive Assistance and Haptic Guidance for Safe Wheelchair Corridor Following", Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 149, pp. 171–185, (2016). Jiang, H., Zhang, T., Wachs, J.P., and Duerstock, B.S., "Enhanced Control of a Wheelchair-mounted Robotic Manipulator using 3-D Vision and Multimodal Interaction", Computer Vision and Image Understanding, Vol. 149, pp. 21–31, (2016). Saikia, A., ArifKhan, Md., Pusph, S., Tauhidi, S.I., Bhattacharyya, R., Hazarika, Sh.M., and Gan, J.Q., "CBDI-based Collaborative Control for a Robotic Wheelchair", Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 84, pp. 127-131, (2016). Miyachi, T., Buribayeva, G., Iga, S., and Furuhata, T., "A Study of aware Wheelchair with Sensor Networks for Avoiding Two Meters Danger", Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 96, pp. 1004-1010, (2016). Hua, B., Hossain, D., Capi, G., Jindai, M., and Yoshida, I., "Human-like Artificial Intelligent Wheelchair Robot Navigated by Multi-sensor Models in Indoor Environments and Error Analysis", Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 105, pp. 14-19, (2017). Kundu, A.S., Mazumder, O., Lenka, P.K., and Bhaumik, S., "Design and Performance Evaluation of 4 Wheeled Omni Wheelchair with Reduced Slip and Vibration", Procedia Computer Science, Vol. 105, pp. 289-295, (2017). Leena, N., and Saju, K.K., "Modelling and Trajectory Tracking of Wheeled Mobile Robots", Procedia Technology, Vol. 24, pp. 538-545, (2016). Peidro, A., Reinoso, O., Gil, A., Marin, J.M., and Paya, L., "A Simulation Tool to Study the Kinematics and Control of 2RPR-PR Parallel Robots", 11th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Control Education, Bratislava, Slovakia, pp. 268–273, (2016).