Stability investigation of hydraulic interconnected suspension system of a vehicle with a quaternion neural network controller
AbstractUsing hydraulic interconnected suspension (HIS) system to improve the stability of the vehicles is a matter of recent interest of many scholars. In this paper, application of this kind of suspension system and its impact on the stability of the vehicle are studied. The governing dynamic relations of the system are presented, using free body diagram, Newton-Euler motion equations, and relations related to the mass flow rate of fluid. By completing the design of the passive suspension system and the hydraulic interconnected suspension system and employing the half car model in the transverse direction with four degree of freedom, Matlab (Simulink) software is used to investigate and compare the body and wheel responses of the vehicle in exposure to road surface roughness. In the end, quaternion neural network controller has been used due to the obtained nonlinear equations in interaction of suspension system as well as the coupled differential equations. Using quaternion neural network controller, the results indicated that the stability of vehicle and ride comfort are increased and also more smooth responses are generated.
 Baumal, A. E., Mcphee, J. J., and Calamai, P. H., "Application of Genetic Algorithms to the Design Optimization of an Active Vehicle Suspension System", Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering Journal, Vol. 163, pp. 87-94, (1998).
 Chen, B. C., Shiu, Y. H., and Hsieh, F. C., "Sliding-mode Control for Semi-active Suspension with Actuator Dynamics", Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 49, pp. 277-290, (2011).
 Abdelkareem, M. A., Xu, L., Ali, M. K. A., Elagouz, A., Mi, J., and Guo, S., "Vibration Energy Harvesting in Automotive Suspension System: A Detailed Review", Applied Energy, Vol. 229, pp. 672-699, (2018).
 Omar, M., El-Kassaby, M., and Abdelghaffar, W., "A Universal Suspension Test Rig for Electrohydraulic Active and Passive Automotive Suspension System", Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 56, pp. 359-370, (2017).
 Phalke, T. P., and Mitra, A. C., "Analysis of Ride Comfort and Road Holding of Quarter Car Model by Simulink", Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 4, pp. 2425-2430, (2017).
 Miller, L. R., and Nobles, C. M., "The Design and Development of a Semi-active Suspension for a Military Tank", SAE Technical Paper 0148-7191, (1988).
 Yao, Z., " Design and Analysis of an Interconnected Suspension for a Small Off-road Vehicle", M.Sc. Thesis, University of Windsor, Canada, (2016).
 Esfahani, M. I. M., Mosayebi, M., Pourshams, M., and Keshavarzi, A., "Optimization of Double Wishbone Suspension System with Variable Camber Angle by Hydraulic Mechanism", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 61, pp. 299-306, (2010).
 Smith, W., Zhang, N., and Jeyakumaran, J., "Hydraulically Interconnected Vehicle Suspensions: Theoretical and Experimental Ride Analysis", Veh. Syst Dyn., Vol. 48, pp. 41-64, (2010).
 Cao, D., Rakheja, S., and Su, C. Y., "A Generalized Model of a Class of Interconnected Hydro-pneumatic Suspensions and Analysis of Pitch Properties", in ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, pp. 137-146, (2006).
 Zhu, H., Yang, J., and Zhang, Y., "Modeling and Optimization for Pneumatically Pitch-Interconnected Suspensions of a Vehicle", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 432, pp. 290-309, (2018).
 Zou, J., Guo, X., Xu, L., Abdelkareem, M. A., Gong, B., and Zhang, J., "Simulation Research of a Hydraulic Interconnected Suspension Based on a Hydraulic Energy Regenerative Shock Absorber", SAE Technical Paper 0148-7191, (2018).
 Shengzhao, C., Yixu, Z., Bangji, Z., and Nong, Z., "Influence of Key Parameters of Hydraulically Interconnected Suspension on Vehicle Dynamics and Experimental Validation", Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 53, pp. 1-224 2017-07-20, (2017).
 Bouazara, M., and Richard, M. J., "An Optimization Method Designed to Improve 3-D Vehicle Comfort and Road Holding Capability Through the use of Active and Semi-active Suspensions", European Journal of Mechanics-A/Solids, Vol. 20, pp. 509-520, (2001).
 Bagheri, A., Mahmoodabadi, M., Rostami, H., and Kheybari, Sh., "Pareto Optimization of a Two-degree of Freedom Passive Linear Suspension using a New Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm", International Journal of Engineering, (2011).
 Nariman-Zadeh, N., Salehpour, M., Jamali, A., and Haghgoo, E., "Pareto Optimization of a Five-degree of Freedom Vehicle Vibration Model using a Multi-objective Uniform-Diversity Genetic Algorithm (MUGA)", Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23, pp. 543-551, (2010).
 Thompson, A., "The Effect of Tyre Damping on the Performance of Vibration Absorbers in an Active Suspension", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 133, pp. 457-465, (1989).
 Omar, M., El-kassaby, M. M., and Abdelghaffar, W., "Parametric Numerical Study of Electrohydraulic Active Suspension Performance Against Passive Suspension", Alexandria Engineering Journal, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 3609–3614, Dec. (2018).
 Ma, X., Wong, P. K., and Zhao, J., "Practical Multi-objective Control for Automotive Semi-active Suspension System with Nonlinear Hydraulic Adjustable Damper", Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 117, pp. 667-688, (2019).
 Tu, Z., Zhao, Y., Ding, N., Feng, Y., and Zhang, W., "Stability Analysis of Quaternion-Valued Neural Networks with both Discrete and Distributed Delays", Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 343, pp. 342-353, (2019).
 Spentzas, K., and Kanarachos, S. A., "Design of a Non-linear Hybrid Car Suspension System using Neural Networks", Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, Vol. 60, pp. 369-378, (2002).
 Pang, H., Liu, F., and Xu, Z., "Variable Universe Fuzzy Control for Vehicle Semi-active Suspension System with MR Damper Combining Fuzzy Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization", Neurocomputing, Vol. 306, pp. 130-140, (2018).
 Monedero, I., Biscarri, F., León, C., Guerrero, J. I., González, R., and Pérez-Lombard, L., "Decision System Based on Neural Networks to Optimize the Energy Efficiency of a Petrochemical Plant," Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 39, pp. 9860-9867, (2012).
 Floares, A. G., "A Reverse Engineering Algorithm for Neural Networks, Applied to the Subthalamopallidal Network of Basal Ganglia", Neural Networks,Vol. 21, pp. 379-386, (2008).
 Huang, F., Zhao, C., Huang, Y., Dai, P., Hao, D., and Yue, Y., "Study on the Evaluation Model of Vehicle Comfort Based on the Neural Network", IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 51, pp. 553-558, (2018).
 Luo, H., Huang, M., and Zhou, Z., "Integration of Multi-Gaussian Fitting and LSTM Neural Networks for Health Monitoring of an Automotive Suspension Component", Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 428, pp. 87-103, (2018).
 Takahashi, K., Hasegawa, Y., and Hashimoto, M., "Design of Quaternion-Neural-Network-Based Self-Tuning Control Systems", Sensors and Materials, Vol. 29, pp. 699-711, (2017).
 Eslaminasab, N., "Development of a Semi-active Intelligent Suspension System for Heavy Vehicles", Ph.D. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Canada, (2008).
 Wei, C., and Taghavifar, H., "A Novel Approach to Energy Harvesting from Vehicle Suspension System: Half-vehicle Model", Energy, Vol. 134, pp. 279-288, (2017).
 Tandel, A., Deshpande, A., Deshmukh, S., and Jagtap, K., "Modeling, Analysis and PID Controller Implementation on Double Wshbone Suspension using Simmechanics and Simulink", Procedia Engineering, Vol. 97, pp. 1274-1281, (2014).
 Boada, B. L., Boada, M. J. L., Vargas-Melendez, L., and Diaz, V., "A Robust Observer Based on H∞ Filtering with Parameter Uncertainties Combined with Neural Networks for Estimation of Vehicle Roll Angle", Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol. 99, pp. 611-623, (2018).
 Guo, S., Chen, Z., Guo, X., Zhou, Q., and Zhang, J., "Vehicle Interconnected Suspension System based on Hydraulic Electromagnetic Energy Harvest: Design, Modeling and Simulation Tests", SAE Technical Paper 0148-7191, (2014).
 Jazar, R. N., "Vehicle Dynamics: Theory and Application", Springer, (2017).
 Bakkhoshnevis, A. A., Mamouri, A. R., and Nazari, S., "Experimental Investigation of Wake on an Elliptic Cylinder in the Presence of Tripping Wire", Iranian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Transactions of the ISME, Vol. 18, pp. 81-102, (2017).
 Bakkhoshnevis, A. A., Mamouri, A. R., and Khodadadi, M., " Experimental Investigation for Wake of the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires", Iranian Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Transactions of the ISME, Vol. 17, pp. 5-25, (2016).
 Mamouri, A. R., Khoshnevis, A. B., and Lakzian, E., " Entropy Generation Analysis of S825, S822, SD7062 Offshore Wind Turbine Airfoil Geometries", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 173, pp. 700-715, (2019).
 Mamouri, A. R., Lakzian, E., and Khoshnevis, A. B., " Entropy Analysis of Pitching Airfoil for Offshore Wind Turbines in the Dynamic Stall Condition", Ocean Engineering, Vol. 187, pp. 106229, (2019)