Experimental Study on the Effect of Magnetic Field on Critical Heat Flux of Ferrofluid Flow Boiling in a Vertical Tube

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. Zip code: 5166616471. Tel: +984133393146. Fax: +984133338497.

2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran.

Abstract

In the present work, the critical heat flux measurements were performed for the subcooled flow boiling of pure water and magnetic nanofluids (i.e., water + 0.01 and 0.1 vol.% Fe‌‌3O4) in a vertical tube. The effect of applying an external magnetic field on the CHF variation was studied experimentally as well. The obtained results indicated that the subcooled flow boiling CHF in the vertical tube is increased by using the nanofluid as the working fluid, especially in lower volume concentration of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles deposition on the tube inner surface and consequently improvement of the surface characteristics such as nucleation site density, wettability and re-wetting properties could be mentioned as the main reasons of this incident. Moreover, it was seen that applying the magnetic field leads to the additional enhancement in the CHF of ferrofluids. It could be clarified as the attraction of the nanoparticles into the magnets and increasing the surface wettability resulted in the CHF enhancement.

Keywords

Main Subjects


[1] Katto, Y., "Critical Heat Flux", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 53–90, (1994).

 

[2] Cheng, X., and Mueller, U., "Review on Critical Heat Flux in Water Cooled Reactors", Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA, Vol. 6825, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, (2003).

 

[3] Chang, S., and Baek, W. P., "Understanding, Predicting, and Enhancing Critical Heat Flux", Proceedings of Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-10), Seoul, Korea, (2003).

 

[4] Collier, J., and Thome, J., "Convective Boiling and Condensation", Third Ed., Oxford University Press, (1994).

 

[5] Richard, T., Lahey, F. J., and Moody, "The Thermal Hydraulics of a Boiling Water Nuclear Reactor", 2nd Edition, American Nuclear Society La Grange Park, Illinois, USA, (1977).

 

[6] Rogers, J., Salcudean, M., and Tahir, A., "Flow Boiling Critical Heat Fluxes for Water in a Vertical Annulus at Low Pressure and Velocities", In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Heat Transfer Conference, Muenchen, Germany, Vol. 1,  No. 2, pp. 339–344, (1982).

 

[7] Mishima, K., and Ishii, M., "Critical Heat Flux Experiments under Low-flow Conditions in a Vertical Annulus", NUREG/ CR-2647, ANL-82-6, (1982).

 

[8] El-Genk, M.S., Haynes, S., and Kim, S., "Experimental Studies of Critical Heat Flux for Low Flow of Water in Vertical Annuli at Near Atmospheric Pressure", Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 2291–2304, (1988).

 

 [9] Schoesse, T., Aritomi, M., Kataoka, Y., Lee, S. R., Yoshioka, Y., and Chung, M.K., "Critical Heat Flux in a Vertical Annulus under Low Upward Flow Near Atmospheric Pressure", J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 559–570, (1997).

 

 [10] Park, J. W., Baek, W. P., and Chang, S. H., "Critical Heat Flux and Flow Pattern for Water Flow in Annular Geometry", Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 172, No. 1-2, pp. 137-155, (1997).

 [11] Chun, S. Y., Chung, H. J., Moon, S. K., Yang, S. K., Chung, M. K., Schoesse, T., and Aritomi, M., "Effect of Pressure on Critical Heat Flux in Uniformly Heated Vertical Annulus under Low Flow Conditions", Nucl. Eng. Des. Vol. 203, No. 2-3, pp. 159–174, (2001).

 

 [12] Rosensweig, R.E., "Ferrohydrodynamics", Cambridge University Press, London, (1985).

 

[13] Hiegeister, R., Andra, W., Buske, N., Hergt, R., Hilger, I., Richter, U., and Kaiser, W., "Application of Magnetite Ferrofluids for Hyperthermia", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 201, No. 1-3, pp. 420–422, (1999).

 

[14] Nakatsuka, K., Jeyadevan, B., Neveu, S., and Koganezawa, H., "The Magnetic Fluid for Heat Transfer Applications", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 252, ICMF9, pp. 360–362, (2002).

 

[15] Shuchi, S., Sakatani, K., and Yamaguchi, H., "An Application of a Binary Mixture of Magnetic Fluid for Heat Transport Devices", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 289, ICMF10, pp. 257–259, (2005).

 

[16] Kim, S.J., Mackrell, T., Boungiorno, J., and Hu, L.W., "Experimental Study of Flow Critical Heat Flux in Alumina-water, Zinc-oxide-water and Diamond-water Nanofluids", Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 131, No. 4, pp. 1-7, (2009).

 

[17] Kim, T.I., Jeong, Y.H., and Chang, S.H., "An Experimental Study on CHF Enhancement in Flow Boiling using Al2O3 Nanofluids", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp. 1015-1022, (2010).

 

[18] Ahn, S.H., Kim, H., Jo, H., Kang, S.H., Chang, W., and Kim, M.H., "Experimental Study of Critical Heat Flux Enhancement during Forced Convective Flow Boiling on Nanofluid on a  Short Heated Surface", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 375-384, (2010).

 

[19] Ahn, S.H., Kang, S.H., Jo,  Kim, H. H., and Kim, M.H., "Visualization Study of the Effects of Nanoparticles Surface Deposition on Convective Flow Boiling CHF from a Short Heated Wall", International Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 215-228, (2011).

 

[20] Kamiyama, S., and Ishimoto, J., "Boiling Two-phase Flows of Magnetic Fluid in a Non-uniform Magnetic Field", Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 149, No. 1-2, pp. 125-131, (1995).

 

[21] Lee, T., lee, J.H., and Jeong, Y.H., "Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Characteristics of Magnetic Nanofluid at Atmospheric Pressure and Low Mass Flux Conditions", International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 56, No. 1-2, pp. 101-106, (2013).